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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Female sexual dysfunction FSD is a highly prevalent and often underestimated problem. However, large-scale, population-based epidemiological surveys of FSD are scarce in China. A cross-sectional study based on the multiple-stage cluster sampling was performed with adult women throughout the Dongcheng and Shunyi districts of Beijing.
The Chinese version of FSFI was used, as well as questions on demographic characteristics, the disease-related context, and social relationships. A total of consecutive women entered this study, with an actual response from women, corresponding to a response rate of A total of The prevalence of adult FSD in Beijing was However, Dissatisfaction with the spouse's sexual ability, poor marital affection, sexual difficulties of the spouse, dissatisfaction with the marriage, rural life, CPP, and postmenopausal were conceivable risk factors for FSD in Beijing women.
Sexuality is the foundation of not only human survival, but also reproduction, and has deep spiritual and cultural connotations. Scientifically, the etiology of sexual dysfunction is frequently multifactorial as it relates to age, social strata, education level, employment, and religion as well as biological, medical, and psychological factors. Large-scale, population-based epidemiological surveys of FSD are scarce in China. In addition, most prior studies evaluating sexual function in Chinese women were clinic based, with variations and inconsistency in the way FSD was measured, and did not use validated, condition-specific questionnaires.
The professional FSFI questionnaire was deed in This study selected a well-developed city based on the economy, culture, and education level, with Beijing as the gold standard survey unit, to investigate the current sex life of apparently healthy women and identify the prevalence and factors associated with FSD in Chinese women. The long-term goals of this study included guidance for clients and health-care providers about sexuality and sexual dysfunction, screening for sexual disorders, and initiating dialog with professionals who could help recognize, treat, and eventually decrease the prevalence of sexual disorders and suffering.
All participants provided written informed consent prior to their enrollment in this study; however, a few participants were not willing or able to read the informed consent. Peking Union Medical College considered the informed consent consistent with ethical requests, on July 20, All the study data were kept confidential. From July to Decembera population-based cross-sectional study was performed based on the feasibility, economic effectiveness, and representative principles of multiple-stage cluster sampling in Beijing.
The health bureau of Dongcheng and Shunyi districts, which are owned by the Beijing city government, assisted with the study. The health bureau encouraged the women's participation. Every local family received a notice during the household health interview by the community doctors or community workers.
The notice indicated the time and place that the questionnaire would be administered. The participants were provided with information on public hygiene and given basic education regarding gynecology and obstetrics on the same day. The health bureaus of the Dongcheng and Shunyi districts organized the administration of the questionnaire. Researchers approached participants in the local community health service center, an office block that provides general information to local residents and communication space for the researchers.
For poorly educated participants, an experienced interviewer explained the study. Verbal informed consent was provided simultaneously to ensure that all participants understood the study. All participants completed the questionnaire voluntarily, anonymously, and independently to ensure the confidentiality of the survey. We randomly sampled 1. A total of participants were included in the survey.
Considering the sensitivity of sexual problems, transportation convenience, and the logistics of the investigation, the study randomly sampled two districts of Beijing as the survey unit, including the high-level economic and culturally educated Dongcheng district and the medium-level economic and culturally educated Shunyi district.
The questionnaire consisted of two parts: a general questionnaire and a professional questionnaire. This study used the FSFI to evaluate the sexual dysfunction of women enrolled in this study. The FSFI is a brief, item questionnaire that assesses self-reported female sexual function during the past 4 weeks and is organized into a 6-domain structure that includes desire two questionsarousal four questionslubrication four questionsorgasm three questionssatisfaction three questionsand pain three questions.
The optimal cutoff score of the FSFI was All data were collected, and an EpiData database was established. Data were double entered and strictly checked to eliminate logic errors. All statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version Enumeration data were analyzed using the Chi-square test, and the logistic regression multivariate analysis model was well suited for the single- or multi-potential risk factors for FSD such as dysaphrodisia, arousal difficulties, vaginal lubrication problems, orgasmic dysfunction, sexual satisfaction disorders, and dyspareunia.
All participants had completed 6 years of compulsory education; Of the participants, Those living in urban areas ed for Menstrual status was regular for The prevalence of adult female dysaphrodisia, arousal difficulties, vaginal lubrication problems, orgasmic dysfunction, sexual satisfaction disorders, and dyspareunia was Among women with FSD, Prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women in Shunyi and Dongcheng districts of Beijing, China.
Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for primary screening followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis of the potential factors for FSD. Age and sex life expectancy had ificant colinearity Spearman's index 0. The sexual ability of the spouse, poor marital affection, postmenopausal, lower education, and spouse's sexual difficulties were the most probable and important factors [ Table 3 ].
Multinomial logistic regression analysis of potential risk factors for female sexual dysfunction. Sexuality is a socially sensitive problem all over the world and has deep roots in many complicated health-related factors such as cultural, religious, and ethical social factors. The prevalence of FSD and effect factors was different between countries and different areas. The clinical diagnosis of FSD should be comprehensive and include a medical history, physical examination, psychological assessment, and diagnostic tests.
No unified, objective, or quantifiable indicators are available. Almost all epidemiological surveys of FSD have been in questionnaire form. The FSFI questionnaire created in was developed as a brief, general, diagnostic epidemiological survey method for use all over the world.
A self-administered questionnaire survey in female employees of two hospitals in South Taiwan, China reported that Although the population of China is approximately 1,, no large-scale, population-based epidemiological survey of FSD has been conducted ly. InSun et al. The present survey included women aged 20—66 years in Beijing using a self-reported questionnaire. Using the predetermined cutoff scores, the prevalence of adult female FSD in Beijing was The of this survey reflected the real situation of adult FSD in Beijing and were closely related to the social and cultural background and sexual traditions in China.
The potential risk factors for FSD embodied a range of issues, but generally they could be classified into three : biological factors e. The effects of factors varied according to the different types of FSD. A national survey of Swedes[ 14 ] found that appreciable erectile dysfunction or abnormal ejaculation increased the incidence of FSD.
A research in Taiwan, China in [ 15 ] showed that appreciable erectile dysfunction in the spouse caused female arousal, orgasmic dysfunction, and induced sexual dissatisfaction, and abnormal ejaculation might cause female sexual satisfaction disorder. The present study found that appreciable sexual difficulties of the spouse were potential risk factors for FSD. Male hypaphrodisia seemed to be the greatest factor influencing FSD, with a 7. Dissatisfaction with the spouse's sexual ability also increased the risk of FSD by approximately 6.
The of this study were practical and realistic and truthfully present issues. One plausible explanation was that, because of traditional Chinese culture, it is easier for Chinese women to point out sexual dysfunctions and dissatisfaction in themselves, but more difficult to admit the sexual problems of their spouse, such as erectile dysfunction. The of this study also found that female affection toward the spouse strongly affected a woman's sexual function, even exceeding the influence of hormones. InKinsey et al.
Safarinejad[ 8 ] used a FSFI questionnaire to survey Iranian women aged 20—60 years in and found that the prevalence of FSD increased with age. The same were reported in Aslan et al. The current research findings showed the increased prevalence with age. Our also revealed that postmenopausal women had approximately 3 times higher risk of FSD than premenopausal ones.
A decline in estrogen-induced vaginal dryness and increased intercourse pain might explain this phenomenon. The influence was progressive and a feature of the aging population. Currently, data show that reproductive organ inflammation, myoma of the uterus; adenomyosis, cervical lesions, urinary incontinence, and other dysfunctions are rarely the cause of FSD. The present study found that the prevalence of FSD in healthy women was ificantly lower than that among those who have gynecological diseases, indicating that gynecological disease was a risk factor for FSD.
Pelvic surgery can cause FSD due to injury to the pelvic nerves or vessels during the procedure, inflammation and fibrosis after the surgery, and mental disorders caused. This study showed that both chronic disease and pelvic surgery are risk factors for FSD. Therefore, more attention must be paid to the disease during clinical treatment and management and how it impacts FSD. This study also showed that the prevalence was ificantly greater among women who had undergone a cesarean section compared with nulliparous women, but was ificantly lower than that of the vaginal delivery group.
Injury to pelvic floor organization and nerves by pregnancy and childbirth might cause an increased incidence of sexual dysfunction. Other vaginal delivery modes, such as vaginal dystocia, and vaginal birth were not classified in detail. Thus, additional studies on cesarean section and vaginal delivery and their influence on female sexuality are needed.
A survey in the US by Laumann et al. Cayan et al. InSafarinejad et al. Our investigation found that, as the education level increased, various types of FSD decreased in prevalence, indicating that higher education was a protective factor. Better-educated women pay more attention to sexual consciousness and property rights and are more able to express their appeal and dissatisfaction.
In human society, sex is closely related to marriage, emotions, and reproduction, but these cannot be completely equated. Emotion is the spiritual resonance, and marriage is a social contract. China implements a monogamous marriage system. Including marital and premarital sexual relationships, Our data showed that women with fair marriage satisfaction experienced FSD less often than women who had more obstacles to marriage satisfaction, indicating that marriage dissatisfaction was a protective factor, reasonably.
In conclusion, female sexual problems are highly prevalent in Beijing. The sexual ability of the spouse, marital affection, postmenopausal, and spouse's sexual difficulties were the most probable and important factors.
More research in different areas is essential for further understanding of FSD in China. Edited by: Xin Chen.Sex personal Shunyi
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