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Women seeking sex Chisholm

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Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. However, the conceptual and empirical nature of this mechanism is ill-defined.

indicated that only sensation seeking consistently showed all the predicted associations, although impulsivity, future orientation, and delay discounting showed some ificant associations.

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We discuss the use of personality traits as measures in LHT and suggest that greater caution and clarity is required when conceptualizing this construct in future work. Life-history theory LHT is an evolutionary framework addressing phenotypic variation see Ellis, Figueredo, Brumbach, and Schlomer, ; Stearns, Phenotypic variation is not infinite and is constrained by trading-off limited resources between traits Roff, As fitness is measured via successful reproduction, a principal life-history decision is the age of reproductive onset.

Organisms can terminate investment in growth and reproduce early, expanding reproductive windows at the expense of lower accumulated capital for parenting. Alternatively, delaying reproduction allows somatic growth and resource accumulation but shortens the reproductive window. Age-specific mortality rates affect trade-offs Ellis et al. An organism's development thus balances reproductive optima with avoiding fitness cliffs.

Mortality rates differ across ages and environments, making reproductive timing decisions sensitive to risks of premature death.

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LHT principles have been applied to explaining variation among humans e. It has been proposed that individuals detect cues to mortality either directly from the local environment Wilson and Daly, or via familial stress manifested through weak attachments Belsky et al. This is achieved by earlier pubertal onset, coitus, and willingness to engage in risky behaviors such as aggression and short-term couplings Chisholm, ; Ellis et al.

Those with shorter time preferences consume resources in the present. Present consumption protects against possible future fitness cliffs. In environments where mortality risks are high, early reproduction and willingness to take risks may be functional, because capitalizing on resources and opportunities in the present can ensure fitness returns Chisholm, ; Ellis et al. Deferring investment may bring no return at all through premature death.

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From a fitness perspective, individuals living under high mortality conditions have the least to lose and the most to gain from increased aggression and mating effort in the present, optimizing fitness in response to beliefs about reproductively uncertain 1 futures Chisholm, Schechter and Francis found that measures of future orientation were positively related to longer life expectancy and negatively related to childhood attachment problems and risk-taking attitudes.

Kruger, Reischl, and Zimmerman demonstrated that time preference mediated relationships between measures of developmental environments and measures of aggression and criminality corroborated by Hill, Jenkins, and Farmer, Self-assessed life expectancy has shown predicted correlations with life-history behaviors; shorter life expectancies were associated with more aggression, risky behavior, and earlier reproductive behavior Chisholm, ; Copping, Campbell, and Muncer, a ; Wilson and Daly, ; Wilson and Herrnstein, Others have also stressed the multi-faceted nature of the construct Evenden, ; Cross, Copping, and Campbell, Frederick et al.

For instance, Hill et al. However, this has not always been supported by research findings. Sex differences rarely emerge Cross et al. In a review of the animal literature, Fawcett, McNamara, and Houston proposed that discounting is not exponential and is instead context-dependent and contingent on the availability and consistency of reward. Psychological mechanism s that represent it should demonstrate the following associations although these are not necessarily criteria for evaluating all potential life history variables, they should apply to aggression and mating behaviors based on Chisholm's hypothesis :.

Associations with life-history behaviors such as aggression and mating attitudes. Associations with reproductive onset. Associations with environmental stressors. Chisholm claimed local mortality rates impact upon family instability and disrupt attachment bonds, conveying levels of environmental stress indirectly to developing children.

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Sex differences. Evolutionary principles emphasize a role of biological sex in attachment processes, personality, and behavioral expressions of life-history variables, particularly aggression and sexual activity Archer ; Copping, Campbell, and Muncer, b ; Del Giudice, Differing reproductive variances between the sexes form the basis of these differences, with reproductive outcomes being more variable for males than females Bateman, ; Trivers, encouraging greater male risk-taking and impulsivity to secure reproductive fitness Wilson and Daly, —the opposite being true for females Campbell, Several traits have been associated with a faster life-history tempo.

A review of these traits in relation to the above four criteria follows. Aggression and antisocial behaviors correlate positively with levels of SS Wilson and Scarpa,as do risky sexual behaviors and mating strategies Donohew et al. Sex differences in SS are evident Cross et al. SS is also negatively correlated with pubertal onset particularly in males: Khurana et al.

Impulsivity represents a lack of deliberation. Stressful environments may contribute to impulsivity via interaction with genetic variants associated with impulsivity Reif et al. Measures of impulsivity show expected relationships with pubertal onset Khurana et al.

Future Orientation FO describes several related cognitive, attitudinal, and motivational processes see Steinberg et al. Women are more future orientated than men Kruger et al. Life expectancy has shown expected relationships with female pubertal onset Chisholm et al. Delay Discounting DD describes a preference for short-term over long-term gains where subjective reward value decreases with increases in receipt delay Mazur, Respondents are presented with choices between small, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards and indicate reward preferences given varied delay periods.

Rewards can be hypothetical or real. DD is related to risky behaviors, including aggression and sexual risk-taking, Reimers, Maylor, Stewart, and Chater, Sex differences have been found in measures of DD, but their magnitude varies considerably Cross et al. Discounting is also influenced by resource scarcity Griskevicius, Delton, Robertson, and Tybur, ; Griskevicius, Tybur, Delton, and Robertson, Measures of discounting also show expected correlations with pubertal onset Khurana et al. Traits were also examined individually to determine which trait best meets the criteria for a mediating psychological mechanism.

Seven hundred and forty one individuals males and females recruited from schools, colleges, and universities participated in an online questionnaire. Their mean age was Participants had to be age 13 or above and to have reached puberty in order to participate for ethical reasons.

No exclusion criteria or incentives were used. Measures are described below. Confirmatory factor analysis CFA was conducted on all measurement indicators where a latent factor was assumed. Models were evaluated by the following criteria: X 2 values should be non-ificant, RMSEA measuring model complexity should be.

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Reliability was examined using ordinal alpha Zumbo, Gadermann, and Zeisser,which more accurately estimates reliability than Cronbach's alpha on ordinal measures. Sensation Seeking SS. The SS scale includes 11 binary items measuring thrill and excitement seeking. The scale is summed, with higher scores representing higher levels of sensation seeking. The item scale did not fit adequately. Factor loadings ranged from.

The Dysfunctional Impulsivity scale DI ; Dickman, is composed of 12 binary items measuring deliberative failure. The inventory is summed, with higher scores representing greater impulsivity. However, two of the three subscales Anticipation of Future Consequences and Planning Ahead contained items that were conceptually similar to DI; these scales were moderately correlated with DI. According to Steinberg et al. This 5-item measure presented two opposing statements separated by the word BUT on a 4-point Likert scale, requiring participants to indicate which statement best described them i.

For example, A Some people spend very little time thinking about how things might be in the future, BUT B Other people spend a lot of time thinking about how things might be in the future. Higher scores represent a greater orientation towards the future. Reimer's et al. A higher score ifies preference for larger, delayed rewards. The six items were loaded onto one factor using CFA.

Higher scores index greater aggression. This was measured with an item questionnaire presenting opposing statements regarding sexual and relationship behaviors. Participants indicated their response on a 4-point Likert scale in the same manner as the FO scale. This was a new measure developed for this study see Appendix 1 for items. The 11 items were loaded onto one factor using CFA. Higher scores represent a proclivity for STR. Environmental stress was examined by using perceptions of neighborhood aggression on the assumption that higher levels of perceived violence and victimization are indicative of greater environmental stress mortality risk.

Levels of victimization Vict and environmental aggression EA were measured by using modified versions of the RCRQ, which asked participants to record how often they had witnessed acts of physical aggression e. The six victimization items were loaded onto one factor using CFA. Higher scores indicate more frequent victimization. The same procedure was conducted on the witnessed aggression scale. Higher scores indicate more frequent witnessing of aggression.

All measures demonstrated invariance across age and sex model statistics available on request. The following analyses are exploratory and do not permit conclusions about causal relationships between personality variables and LH variables. Descriptive statistics are presented in Table 1. Correlations are presented in Table 2. Table 2 shows that all four potential traits are related to each other, albeit weakly.

CFA was used to examine whether such a higher-order structure fit the data. WLSMV was used to calculate the fit to the data set. Testing for structural invariance between sex and age groups showed that the higher-order structure also varied between groups.

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